Bridge The Construction Game Serial Key

Starting with smaller gardening works and delivery contracts, the construction of single-family homes and apartment buildings, high-rises and industry halls, up to road construction and bridge building missions, the huge and free accessible game world of the Construction Simulator® 3 – Console Edition is offering long-lasting construction.

  1. Bridge The Construction Game Serial Keys
  2. Bridge The Construction Game Serial
  3. Bridge The Construction Game Serial Key 64-bit

Before going to bridge rectifier, we need to know what actually a rectifier is and what is the need for a rectifier. So first let’s take a look at the evolution of rectifiers.

Construction

Evolution of rectifiers

Rectifiersare mainly classified into three types: Half-wave rectifier, Center tapped full-wave rectifier and Bridge rectifier. All these three rectifiers have a common aim that is to convert Alternating Current (AC) into Direct Current (DC).

Not all these three rectifiers efficiently convert the Alternating Current (AC) into Direct Current (DC), only the center tapped full-wave rectifier and bridge rectifier efficiently convert the Alternating Current (AC) into Direct Current (DC).

In half wave rectifier, only 1 half cycle is allowed and the remaining half cycle is blocked. As a result, nearly half of the applied power is wasted in half wave rectifier. In addition to this, the output current or voltage produced by half wave rectifier is not a pure DC but a pulsating DC which is not much useful.

In order to overcome this problem, scientists developed a new type of rectifier known as center tapped full wave rectifier.

The main advantage of center tapped full wave rectifier is that it allows electric current during both positive and negative half cycles of the input AC signal. As a result, the DC output of the center tapped full wave rectifier is double of that of a half-wave rectifier. In addition to this, the DC output of center tapped full wave rectifier contains very fewer ripples. As a result, the DC output of the center tapped full wave rectifier is smoother than the half wave rectifier.

However, the center tapped full wave rectifier has one drawback that is the center-tapped transformer used in it is very expensive and occupies large space.

To cut this extra cost, scientists developed a new type of rectifier known as a bridge rectifier. In bridge rectifier, center tap is not required. If stepping down or stepping up of voltage is not required, then even the transformer can be eliminated in the bridge rectifier.

The rectifier efficiency of a bridge rectifier is almost equal to the center tapped full wave rectifier. The only advantage of bridge rectifier over center tapped full wave rectifier is the reduction in cost.

In bridge rectifier, instead of using the center-tapped transformer, four diodes are used.

Now we get an idea about the three types of rectifiers. The half wave rectifier and the center tapped full wave rectifier (full wave rectifier) are already discussed in the previous tutorials. This tutorial is mainly focused on the bridge rectifier.

Let’s take a look at the bridge rectifier …!

Bridge rectifier definition

A bridge rectifier is a type of full wave rectifier which uses four or more diodes in a bridge circuit configuration to efficiently convert the Alternating Current (AC) into Direct Current (DC).

Bridge rectifier construction

Theconstruction diagram of a bridge rectifier is shown in the below figure. The bridge rectifier is made up of four diodes namely D1, D2, D3, D4 and load resistor RL. The four diodes are connected in a closed loop (Bridge) configuration to efficiently convert the Alternating Current (AC) into Direct Current (DC). The main advantage of this bridge circuit configuration is that we do not require an expensive center tapped transformer, thereby reducing its cost and size.

The input AC signal is applied across two terminals A and B and the output DC signal is obtained across the load resistor RL which is connected between the terminals C and D.

The four diodes D1, D2, D3, D4 are arranged in series with only two diodes allowing electric current during each half cycle. For example, diodes D1 and D3 are considered as one pair which allows electric current during the positive half cycle whereas diodes D2 and D4 are considered as another pair which allows electric current during the negative half cycle of the input AC signal.

How bridge rectifier works?

When input AC signal is applied across the bridge rectifier, during the positive half cycle diodes D1 and D3 are forward biased and allows electric current while the diodes D2 and D4 are reverse biased and blocks electric current. On the other hand, during the negative half cycle diodes D2 and D4 are forward biased and allows electric current while diodes D1 and D3 are reverse biased and blocks electric current.

During the positive half cycle, the terminal A becomes positive while the terminal B becomes negative. This causes the diodes D1 and D3 forward biased and at the same time, it causes the diodes D2 and D4 reverse biased.

The current flow direction during the positive half cycle is shown in the figure A (I.e. A to D to C to B).

During the negative half cycle, the terminal B becomes positive while the terminal A becomes negative. This causes the diodes D2 and D4 forward biased and at the same time, it causes the diodes D1 and D3 reverse biased.

The current flow direction during negative half cycle is shown in the figure B (I.e. B to D to C to A).

From the above two figures (A and B), we can observe that the direction of current flow across load resistor RL is same during the positive half cycle and negative half cycle. Therefore, the polarity of the output DC signal is same for both positive and negative half cycles. The output DC signal polarity may be either completely positive or negative. In our case, it is completely positive. If the direction of diodes is reversed then we get a complete negative DC voltage.

Thus, a bridge rectifier allows electric current during both positive and negative half cycles of the input AC signal.

The output waveforms of the bridge rectifier is shown in the below figure.

Characteristicsof bridge rectifier

Peak Inverse Voltage (PIV)

The maximum voltage a diode can withstand in the reverse bias condition is called Peak Inverse Voltage (PIV)

or

The maximum voltage that the non-conducting diode can withstand is called Peak Inverse Voltage (PIV).

During the positive half cycle, the diodes D1 and D3 are in the conducting state while the diodes D2 and D4 are in the non-conducting state. On the other hand, during the negative half cycle, the diodes D2 and D4 are in the conducting state while the diodes D1 and D3 are in the non-conducting state.

The Peak Inverse Voltage (PIV) for a bridge rectifier is given by

PIV = VSmax

Ripple factor

Thesmoothness of the output DC signal is measured by using a factor known as ripple factor. The output DC signal with very fewer ripples is considered as the smooth DC signal while the output DC signal with high ripples is considered as the high pulsating DC signal.

Ripplefactor is mathematically defined as the ratio of ripple voltage to the pure DC voltage.

The ripple factor for a bridge rectifier is given by

The ripple factor of the bridge rectifier is 0.48 which is same as the center tapped full wave rectifier.

Rectifier efficiency

Therectifier efficiency determines how efficiently the rectifier converts Alternating Current (AC) into Direct Current (DC).

Highrectifier efficiency indicates a most reliable rectifier while the low rectifier efficiency indicates a poor rectifier.

Rectifierefficiency is defined as the ratio of the DC output power to the AC input power.

The maximum rectifier efficiency of a bridge rectifier is 81.2% which is same as the center tapped full wave rectifier.

Advantages of bridge rectifier

Low ripples in the output DC signal

The DC output signal of the bridge rectifier is smoother than the half wave rectifier. In other words, the bridge rectifier has fewer ripples as compared to the half wave rectifier. However, the ripple factor of the bridge rectifier is same as the center tapped full wave rectifier.

Highrectifier efficiency

Therectifier efficiency of the bridge rectifier is very high as compared to the half wave rectifier. However, the rectifier efficiency of bridge rectifier and center tapped full wave rectifier is same.

Low power loss

Bridge the construction game serial key keygen

In half wave rectifier only one half cycle of the input AC signal is allowed and the remaining half cycle of the input AC signal is blocked. As a result, nearly half of the applied input power is wasted.

However, in the bridge rectifier, the electric current is allowed during both positive and negative half cycles of the input AC signal. So the output DC power is almost equal to the input AC power.

Disadvantagesof bridge rectifier

Bridgerectifier circuit looks very complex

In a half wave rectifier, only a single diode is used whereas in a center tapped full wave rectifier two diodes are used. But in the bridge rectifier, we use four diodes for the circuit operation. So the bridge rectifier circuit looks more complex than the half wave rectifier and center tapped full wave rectifier.

More power loss as compared to the Center tapped full wave rectifier

Bridge The Construction Game Serial Keys

Inelectronic circuits, the more diodes we use the more voltage drop will occur. The power loss in bridge rectifier is almost equal to the center tapped full wave rectifier. However, in a bridge rectifier, the voltage drop is slightly high as compared to the center tapped full wave rectifier. This is due to two additional diodes (total four diodes).

In center tapped full wave rectifier, only one diode conducts during each half cycle. So the voltage drop in the circuit is 0.7 volts. But in the bridge rectifier, two diodes which are connected in series conduct during each half cycle. So the voltage drop occurs due to two diodes which is equal to 1.4 volts (0.7 + 0.7 = 1.4 volts). However, the power loss due to this voltage drop is very small.

'This article is only about bridge rectifier. If you want to read about bridge rectifier with filter visit: bridge rectifier with filter'

Special K Software

Welcome to Special K Software card games.

BRIDGE is the most popular card game in the world, and Bridge from Special K gives you the excitement and challenge of Bridge without the need to find three other people to play with.
People who do not enjoy Bridge will certainly enjoy 500 Card Game or SKAT, CANASTA, EUCHRE, WHIST or one of the 12 games in the RUMMY family of games. These card games are played in all locations across the world, and their fans are just as fanatical. These games are all enjoyable because they each contain a different balance of skill and luck. Each game is designed for both beginners and experts, and have many tuition features which may be turned off for the expert.
The 500 Card Game is the greatest card game ever devised (arguably). It is most popular in Australia, New Zealand, USA, and Canada. Download the software that allows you to play against your computer here.
RUMMY contains classic games of GIN RUMMY, 500 RUMMY, PINOCHLE RUMMY, KALUKI, OKLAHOMA GIN, and the Rummy games of MICHIGAN, BOATHOUSE, ROUND THE CORNER, HIGH - LOW, ONE MELD, WILD CARD, and the newest addition INDIAN RUMMY .
SKAT is the classic national German card game. It stands out as being the best game for three players as it is specifically designed for three players. It is also challenging as it is the most complex game.
EUCHRE and the latest addition to this card game range, CANASTA, can be customized to all the rules you want to play by.
WHIST contains both the standard Whist game, and also Knock Out Whist. This variety maintains the excitement felt on traditional Whist Drives.
All the games of 500 , Bridge , Euchre , Canasta, Skat , Whist and Rummy are recognized as being the best collection in their class. These card games run in all current Windows operating systems (Windows 10, 8.1, 7, XP, ME, NT, 2000, 98, 95), on PC's, notebooks, and tablets. Jump to the game you want with the buttons on the left of the screen, or simply scroll down the page.

Bridge Card Game


Bridge Card Game from Special K

Click here to see a screen shot


Download shareware versions

The best link:
That popular card game of Bridge ver 4.13 - new in 2020 !!
alternatively:

The card game of Bridge ver 4.13 - download in EXE format
The card game of Bridge ver 4.13 - download in ZIP format


Not many games are as methodical as Bridge, and this makes many Bridge players fanatical in their dedication to the game. The game developed from Whist, and in particular a variant called Russian Whist. This popular game plays in Windows, and has a real time explanation of what bids mean as well as an extensive help file, so is ideal for beginners and experts.

Bridge Best Links

worldbridge.org - World Bridge Federation
acbl.org - the American Contract Bridge League
Cats at Cards - how to play Contract Bridge
Bridge Winners - great information on all things Bridge
60 Second Bridge beginner Bridge lessons
Fifth Chair Bridge Foundation for those who need another chair!
The How to Play site - a great resource for all card games
Wikipedia - the classic resource

top of page

Top Sites

Where else can you try fun real money card games than in an online casino - choose a good one from www.onlinecasino-southafrica.co.za or Google.
Get rewarded with free spins upon registration without making a deposit by collecting all the spins available at https://www.freespinsnodeposituk.com if you enjoy playing casino for free in the UK.
500 Card Game


Five Hundred Card Game from Special K

Click here to see a screen shot


Download shareware versions

The best link:
500 Card Game from Special K ver 6.20 - new in 2020 !!
alternatively:

500 Card Game from Special K - download in EXE format
500 Card Game from Special K - download in ZIP format


The 500 Card Game is the greatest card game ever devised. It was created by the US Playing Card Co. in 1904 as a variant of Euchre. Since then, its popularity has resulted in many variants in many parts of the World, and these are accommodated with a fully customizable rules selection so that you can play by the exact rules you enjoy. The computer plays for three players, and you play the fourth, so that you will never miss out on a game again. You can adjust your preferences for skill and speed of play, so that the computer players play just like your human friends.

Five Hundred Card Game Useful Links

500 Card Game for Android devices - Great site for playing on your phone.
Rules of 500 - the excellent site with lots of information on different rules used in different parts of the globe.
Bryce Francis has a 500 site with his preference for playing.
Neil Maloney has written a description of terms used in 500.
On Line 500 Club uses an Internet Browser Plug in to play the game on-line.

top of page

Rummy Collection of Card Games


Rummy Card Games from Special K

Click here to see a screen shot


Download shareware versions

The best link:
The collection of Rummy games ver 3.19- new in 2020
alternatively:

The collection of Rummy ver 3.19 - download in EXE format
The collection of Rummy ver 3.19 - download in ZIP format


RUMMY contains all the classic Rummy games. You can choose the standard games of RUMMY, GIN RUMMY, 500 RUMMY, PINOCHLE RUMMY, KALUKI, OKLAHOMA GIN, MICHIGAN RUMMY, BOAT HOUSE RUMMY, ROUND THE CORNER, HIGH - LOW, ONE MELD, WILD CARD, INDIAN RUMMY, or you can customize the rules to play the way that you want. You can even make up your own game!

Rummy Best Links

The Spruce Crafts - A useful guide to Rummy strategies
Rummy-Games.com - it contains games, rules, and Rummy resources
Pagat - The famous Pagat's Gin Rummy rules
The Cool Old Games site - a great resource
View a guide to Rummy - For people who prefer to be shown rather than told
Rummy Talk - A good site on Rummy with lots of rules and hints

top of page

Canasta Card Game


Canasta Card Game from Special K

Click here to see a screen shot


Download shareware versions

The best link:
The terrific card game of Canasta ver 3.18 - new in 2020
alternatively:

The card game of Canasta ver 3.18 - download in EXE format
The card game of Canasta ver 3.18 - download in ZIP format


Canasta is one of the best known games in the world and belongs in the Rummy family. Canasta is the Spanish word for Basket and the card game evolved in Uruguay and Argentina in the mid 1940's. It became the most popular card game in America from 1948 and in Britain in the years 1950 to 1952.
The game has the advantage that it is enjoyable when played with two to six players, although it is classically played with four. The game shares the same objectives as all Rummy games - to meld your cards into groups of three or more cards of the same rank, but in Canasta sequences are not allowed. In addition, the major points are awarded to achieving groups of 7 or more cards in a meld (called a Canasta).
This Classic Canasta game plays in Windows. Download, and install it, and you can then play whenever you want, even if you cannot find human partners.

Canasta Best Links

Cats at Cards - how to play Canasta
Pagat - a terrific site for lots of card game rules
The How To Play site - a great Canasta resource
D.J.McAdam - free advice from D.J.
American Canasta Society - this is a good site for rules for Modern American Canasta, but be aware that many rules are different from the Classic Canasta in the Special K Software game.
Wikipedia - always worth a look

top of page

Euchre Card Game


Euchre Card Game from Special K

Click here to see a screen shot


Download shareware versions

The best link:
The famous card game of Euchre ver 3.18 - new in 2020
alternatively:

The card game of Euchre ver 3.18 - download in EXE format
The card game of Euchre ver 3.18 - download in ZIP format


EUCHRE is derived from the game 'Juker' or 'juckerspiel', which was played in Alsace. It reached the USA in the early 1800's, and in the 1850's it became the first ever game to use a Joker! In 1904 the US Playing Card Co. created a variant called 500. This computer version has customizable settings so that it is a challenge to new and experienced players, while maintaining all the enjoyment of the original.

Euchre Best Links

Cats at Cards - a very good manual on Euchre rules
The How to Play site - great Euchre resource
Pagat - a terrific site for lots of card game rules
Euchre - There Is No Other Card Game site
WikiHow - explanation for playing Euchre

top of page

Bridge The Construction Game Serial

Whist Card Game


Whist Card Game from Special K

Click here to see a screen shot


Download shareware versions

The best link:
The terrific card game of Whist ver 3.14 - new in 2020
alternatively:

The card game of Whist ver 3.14 - download in EXE format
The card game of Whist ver 3.14 - download in ZIP format


Whist originated in England when it evolved from earlier games (Triumph and Ruff and Honours) which were known in the 16th century. Edmond Hoyle published A Short Treatise on the Game of Whist in 1742, but Henry Jones was the first person to compile a complete description of scientific Whist play in 1862. During the 19th century, the game spread to other European countries, and Whist tournaments (or Whist Drives) became fashionable in society circles. Whist continued the evolution and gave rise to the game of Bridge during this century.
This one game, contains both WHIST and KNOCK OUT WHIST.

Whist Best Links

Cats at Cards - a very good manual on Whist rules
Pagat - a terrific site for lots of card game rules
The How to Play site - a great resource
Wikipedia - a great resource
Wiki on how to play Whist - instructions even come with pictures!

top of page

SKAT Card Game


SKAT Card Game from Special K

Click here to see a screen shot


Download shareware versions

The best link:
The German national game Skat ver 2.8 - new in 2020
alternatively:

The national game Skat ver 2.8 - download in EXE format
The national game Skat ver 2.8 - download in ZIP format


Skat is the German national card game, being invented in the town of Altenburg around 1810. It is distinctive in being a three handed game, however it is often played by four people, with the dealer sitting out each round. The three active players are dealt 10 cards each, and the remaining two cards form the skat, giving the game its name. It is a trick taking game, but differs from most other trick taking games in that the number of tricks taken does not determine the winner. Indeed it is possible to win the hand taking only two of the possible ten tricks.

Skat Best Links

Wikipedia - Great site with detailed rules and examples.
Pagat - Great card game site for all card game rules.
Encyclopaedia Britannica - Details of Skat rules.
Cats at Cards - How to play Skat.
Altenberg - A guide to Skat's birthplace, Altenberg, Germany.
ISPA - The German site of the International Skat Players Association.

top of page

Registering Your Software


click here to buy these games securely on-line by PayPal

These games are distributed under the Shareware system. That means that they are NOT free, but rather you can test the shareware version and if you like it, then you must pay for it by registering it.
You may register all of these games on-line. Your payment is secure on PayPal, and you do not even need an account. For the one US$38 cost you get to download the registered versions of all 7 Special K Software Card Games - 500, Bridge, Canasta, Euchre, Rummy, Skat, and Whist. You can get all my Card Games for the one low cost by clicking here to use PayPal, the most convenient and quickest way to register. You do NOT need a PayPal account to pay this.
You can also register by posting a check and the registration form that comes with each game (or you can use this registration form). I will then post you a CD with the games, or email them to you so you can use them as soon as possible.

NOTE THAT DURING THIS COVID PANDEMIC THE POST OFFICE DOES NOT ACCEPT POSTING CD'S INTERNATIONALLY - SO PLEASE DO NOT USE THIS POSTAL OPTION

As manual handling is involved, the cost is a little higher. The correct postal address is

G. McKAY
7 Smith St.
Brunswick West
Victoria , 3055
Australia

End User License Agreement


End User License Agreement

This copyrighted software is distributed commercially, as is. The end user has the right to install the software on one computer, where it may be used by any number of users on that single computer. A copy may be installed on two other computers, as long as the software would not be used concurrently on different computers (eg on a computer, a notebook, and a tablet). If you require the software on more than three computers, you must purchase additional copies. Multi computer licenses are available at a discount - contact Special K Software).
A standalone version may not be installed on a network drive. Please keep a backup copy of the registered version, which you must not distribute outside of your immediate family.
This software is free of any adware or advertising. The purchaser is responsible for their own computer, and Special K Software bares not responsibility for any failings that may occur.
Uninstall shortcuts are created when installing these games. If you no longer want the games, then simply run the game Uninstall shortcut on the Start Menu to remove all trace of the game.

top of page

Bridge The Construction Game Serial Key 64-bit


Email: [email protected]
visitors since 1998

Comments are closed.