Simple Car Racing Game Code In Dev C%2b%2b

Sat, Jun 23, 2012
  1. Simple Car Racing Game Code In Dev C 2b 2b 1
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Previously we introduced our outrun-style racing game, but how do weget started building a pseudo-3d racing game ?

Well, we’re going to need to

C game coding: Learn to make games using the C programming language. If you have no programming experience but want to get started as fast as possible, or if you need a quick C refresher then this level 1 course is the place to start. Code with C is a comprehensive compilation of Free projects, source codes, books, and tutorials in Java, PHP.NET, Python, C, C, and more. Our main mission is to help out programmers and coders, students and learners in general, with relevant resources and materials in the field of computer programming.

  1. Source code of a car racing game developed during first year of my graduation using C/C Graphics.
  2. CAR RACE IN TURBO C Description: It is a Car race game with 5 levels and 3 life. The author may have retained certain copyrights to this code.please observe.
  • revise some trigonometry
  • revise basic 3d projection
  • build a game loop
  • load some sprite images
  • build some road geometry
  • render the background
  • render the road
  • render the car
  • enable keyboard support to drive the car

/. Language: C C (To convert to C, just change cout to printf and cin to scanf and change the library files) Category: Games Graphics Description: RACE CRAZE::A car racing game. You have to reach the finish line before the time goes out. There are many hurdles in your way.

Before we do any of that, lets go off and read Lou’s Pseudo 3d Page -its the main source of information (that I could find) online about how to build a pseudo-3d racing game.

NOTE: Lou’s page doesn’t render well in google chrome - so its best viewed using Firefox or IE

Finished reading Lou’s article ? Great! We’re going to build a variation on his ‘Realistic Hills Using3d-Projected Segments’ approach. We will do it gradually, over the course of the next 4 articles, but wewill start off here with v1, building very simple straight road geometry and projecting it onto our HTML5canvas element.

see it in action here

Some Trigonometry

Before we get down to the implementation, lets use some basic trigonometry to remind ourselves how to projecta point in a 3D world onto a 2D screen.

At its most basic, without getting into vectors and matrices, 3D projection uses a law of similar triangles.If we were to label:

  • h = camera height
  • d = distance from camera to screen
  • z = distance from camera to car
  • y = screen y coordinate

Then we could use the law of similar triangles to calculate

y = h*d/z

as shown in the diagram below:

We could have also drawn a similar diagram from a top-down view instead of a side-on view and derived a similarequation for calculating the screen x coordinate as

x = w*d/z

Where w = half the width of the road (from camera to road edge)

You can see that for both x and y, what we are really doing is scaling by a factor of

d/z

Coordinate Systems

This sounds nice and simple in diagram form, but once you start coding its easy to get a little confused because we havebeen a bit loose in naming our variables and its not clear which represent 3d world coordinates andwhich represent 2d screen coordinates. We’ve also assumed that the camera is at the origin of our world when inreality it will be following our car.

More formally we should be:

  1. translating from world coordinates to camera coordinates
  2. projecting camera coordinates onto a normalized projection plane
  3. scaling the projected coordinates to physical screen (in our case canvas) coordinates

NOTE: in a true 3d system a rotation step would come between steps 1 and 2, but since we’re going to be faking curves we dont need to worry about rotation

Projection

And so we can present our formal projection equations as follows:

  • The translate equations calculate the point relative to the camera
  • The project equations are variations of our ‘law of similar triangles’ above
  • The scale equations take into account the difference between:
    • math - where 0,0 is at the center and the y axis goes up and
    • computers - where 0,0 is at the top-left and the y axis goes down, as shown below:

NOTE: In a full blown 3d system we would more formally define a Vector and a Matrix classto perform more robust 3d mathematics, and if we were going to do that then we might aswell just use WebGL (or equivalent)… but thats not really the point of this project. Ireally wanted to stick to old-school ‘just-enough’ pseudo-3d to build an outrun-style game.

Some More Trigonometry

One last piece of the puzzle is how to calculate d - the distance from the camera to theprojection plane.

Instead of hard coding a value for d, its more useful to derive it from the desiredvertical field of view. This way we can choose to ‘zoom’ the camera if needed.

Assuming we are projecting onto a normalized projection plane, with coordinatesfrom -1 to +1, we can calculate d as follows:

d = 1/tan(fov/2)

Setting up fov as one (of many) variables we will be able to tweak in order to finetune the rendering algorithm.

Javascript Code Structure

I mentioned in the introduction that this code does not exactlyfollow javascript best practices - its a quick and dirty demo with simple global variables andfunctions. However, since I am going to build 4 separate versions (straights, curves, hills and sprites)I will keep some re-usable methods inside common.js within the following modules:

  • Dom - a few minor DOM helpers.
  • Util - generic utilities, mostly math helpers.
  • Game - generic game helpers such as an image loader and the game loop.
  • Render - canvas rendering helpers.

I will only be detailing methods from common.js if they are relevent to the actual game, ratherthan just simple DOM or math helpers. Hopefully you can tell from the name and context what themethods are supposed to do.

As usual, the source code is the final documentation.

A Simple Game Loop

Dev

Before we can render anything, we need a game loop. If you’ve followed any of my previousgame articles (pong, breakout,tetris, snakes orboulderdash) then you’ll have already seenexamples of my favorite fixed time stepgame loop.

I won’t go into much detail here, I’ll simply re-use some of the code from my previousgames to come up with a fixed time step game loop usingrequestAnimationFrame

The idea being that each of my 4 examples can call Game.run(...) and provide their own versions of

  • update - the game world with a fixed time step.
  • render - the game world whenever the browser allows.

Again, this is a rehash of ideas from my previous canvas games, so if you need clarification on how thegame loop works go back and read those earlier articles (or post a comment below!).

Images and Sprites

Before our game loop starts, we load 2 separate sprite sheets:

  • background - 3 parallax layers for sky, hills and trees
  • sprites - the car sprites (plus trees and billboards to add to the final version)

The spritesheet was generated with a small Rake task using the sprite-factory Ruby Gem.This task generates the unified sprite sheets as well as the x,y,w,h coordinates tobe stored in the BACKGROUND and SPRITES constants.

NOTE: The backgrounds are home-made using Inkscape, while most of the sprites areplaceholder graphics borrowed from the old genesisversion of outrun and used here as teaching examples. If there are any pixel artistsout there who want to provide original art to turn this into a real game please get in touch!

Game Variables

In addition to our background and sprite images we will need a number of game variables, including:

Some of these can be adjusted using the tweak UI controls to allow you tovary some of the critical values at run-time to see what effect they have on therendered road. Others are derived from the tweakable UI values and recalculatedduring the reset() method.

Driving a Ferrari

We provide a key mapping to Game.run that allows for simple keyboardinput that sets or clears variables to indicate any action the playeris currently taking:

The variables that manage the player’s state are:

  • speed - the current speed.
  • position - the current Z position down the track. Note this is actually the position of the camera, not the ferrari.
  • playerX - the current X position across the road. Normalized from -1 to +1 to be independent of the actual roadWidth.

These variables are set within the update method, which will:

  • update position based on current speed.
  • update playerX if left or right arrow keys are pressed.
  • accelerate speed if up arrow is pressed.
  • decelerate speed if down arrow is pressed.
  • decelerate speed if neither up or down arrows are pressed.
  • decelerate speed if playerX is off the sides of the road and into the grass.

For straight roads, the update method is pretty clean and simple:

Don’t worry, it will get much more complicated when we add sprites andcollision detection in the final version :-)

Road Geometry

Before we can render our game world, we need to build up our array ofroad segments within the resetRoad() method.

Each of these road segments will eventually be projected from their world coordinatesto become a 2d polygon in screen coordinates. We store 2 points for each segment, p1is the center of the edge closest to the camera, while p2 is the center of the edgefarthest from the camera.

Technically, each segments p2 is identical to the previous sections p1 but wewill find it easier to maintain them as separate points and transform each segmentindependently.

The reason we maintain a separate rumbleLength is so that we can have fine detailedcurves and hills but still have long rumble strips. If each alternating segment wasa different color it would create a bad strobe effect. So we want lots of smallsegments, but group them together to form each rumble strip.

We initialize p1 and p2 with only z world coordinates because we only needstraight roads. The y coordinates will always be 0, while the x coordinateswill always be based on a scaled +/- roadWidth. This will change later when weadd curves and hills.

We also setup empty objects to store the camera and screen representationsof these points to avoid creating lots of temporary objects during every render

  • trying to keep our garbage collection to a minimum we want to avoid allocatingobjects inside our game loop whenever possible.

When the car reaches the end of the road we will simply loop back to the beginning. Tomake this a little easier we provide a method to find the segment for any Z value evenif it extends beyond the length of the road:

Rending the Background

Our render() method starts with drawing a background image. In future articles when we add curvesand hills we will want the background to parallax scroll, so we start off in that direction here byrendering the background as 3 seperate layers:

Rending the Road

The render function then iterates over the segments, and projects each segment’sp1 and p2 from world coordinates to screen coordinates, clippingthe segment if necessary, otherwise rendering it:


We saw the math required to project a point earlier, the javascript version combinesthe translation, projection and scaling equations into a single method:

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In addition to calculating screen x and y for each of our p1 and p2points we also use the same projection math to calculate the projected width (w)of the segment.

Given the screen x and y coordinates for both p1 and p2, along withthe projected road width w, it becomes fairly straight forward for theRender.segment helper to calculate all the polygons it needs to render thegrass, road, rumble strips and lane separators using a generic Render.polygonhelper (see common.js)

Rendering the Car

Finally, the last thing required by the render method is to render the ferrari:

The reason this method is named player instead of car is because our finalversion of the game has other cars on the road, and we want to specificallydifferentiate the player’s ferrari from the other cars.

The Render.player helper ultimately uses the canvas drawImage method torender a sprite after scaling it based on the same projection scaling we sawearlier:

d/z

Where z in this case is the relative distance of the car from the camera storedin the playerZ variable.

It also ‘bounces’ the car a little at higher speeds by adding a little random-nessto the scaling equation based on speed/maxSpeed.

And boom there you have it:

Conclusion

Thats actually a fairly large chunk of work already just to get us setup withstraight roads. We added…

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  • a common Dom helper module
  • a common Util math helper module
  • a common Render canvas helper module…
  • … including Render.segment, Render.polygon and Render.sprite
  • a fixed step game loop
  • an image loader
  • a keyboard handler
  • a parallax layered background
  • a spritesheet full of cars, trees and billboards
  • some rudimentary road geometry
  • an update() method to drive a car
  • a render() method to render background, road and player car
  • an HTML5 <audio> tag with some racing music (a hidden bonus!)

… but it gives us a good foundation to build on. The next 2 articles, describingcurves and hillsshould be a little easier going, before getting more complex in the last article wherewe add sprites and collision detection.

Related Links

  • read more about v1 - straight roads
  • read more about v2 - curves
  • read more about v3 - hills
  • read more about v4 - final
  • read Lou’s Pseudo 3d Page
  • view the source code

or you can play…

  • the straight road demo
  • the curves demo
  • the hills demo
  • the final version
Fri, Jun 22, 2012

I wasn’t really much for going to the arcades when I was younger… I didn’t need ‘em withawesome C64 games sitting at home… but there were 3 arcade games that could always get mymoney - Donkey Kong, Dragons Lair, and Outrun…

… and I really loved Outrun, the speed, the hills, the palm trees and the music - even thelowly c64 version.

So, I wanted to try my hand at an old-school pseudo-3d racing game, a-la outrun, pitstop orpole-position. I dont plan on building a fully fleshed out and finishedgame but thought it would be fun to re-examine the mechanics of how these games pulledoff their tricks. The curves, the hills, the sprites and the feeling of speed…

So, here’s a “weekend” project that ended up taking about 5 or 6 weekends…

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  • view the source code
  • read more about how it work

The playable version is more of a tech demo than an actual game. In fact, if youwere going to build a real pseudo-3d racing game, this would be just the minimal pointfrom which to start turning it into a game.

Without the polish, it’s a little ugly, but its fully functional, and I can show youhow to implement it yourself in four easy sections…

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  • read more about v1 - straight roads
  • read more about v2 - curves
  • read more about v3 - hills
  • read more about v4 - final

Or you can just play…

  • the straight road demo
  • the curves demo
  • the hills demo
  • the final version

Enjoy!

A note on performance

The performance of this game is very machine/browser dependent. It works quite well in modernbrowsers, especially those with GPU canvas acceleration, but a bad graphics driver can kill it stonedead. So your mileage may vary. There are controls provided to change the rendering resolutionand the draw distance to scale to fit your machine.

Currently supported browsers include:

  • Firefox (v12+) works great, 60fps at high res - Nice!
  • Chrome (v19+) works great, 60fps at high res… provided you dont have a bad GPU driver
  • IE9 - ok, 30fps at medium res… not great, but at least it works

The current state of mobile browser performance is pretty dismal. Dont expect this to be playable onany mobile device.

NOTE: I havent actually spent anytime optimizing for performance yet. So it might be possible tomake it play well on older browsers, but that’s not really what this project is about.

A note on code structure

This project happens to be implemented in javascript (because its easy for prototyping) butis not intended to demonstrate javascript techniques or best practices. In fact, in order tokeep it simple to understand it embeds the javascript for each example directly in the HTMLpage (horror!) and, even worse, uses global variables and functions (OMG!).

If I was building a real game I would have much more structure and organization to thecode, but since its just a racing game tech demo, I have elected to KISS.

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